ADP-ribosylation is a reversible post-translational modification in which one (mono-ADP-ribosylation) or multiple (poly-ADP-ribosylation) ADP-ribose moieties are attached onto a substrate protein by ADP ribosyltransferases. mono-ADP-Ribosylation Overview mono-ADP-ribosylation is a common post-translational modification, where an ADP-ribose moiety is transferred from NAD+ to the substrate protein under the release of nicotinamide. The transfer of ADP-ribose occurs onto […]


Overview Citrulline is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that is produced through post-translational deimination of peptidyl-arginine. Peptidyl-arginine deiminases catalyze the hydrolysis of a guanido group into an urea group. This modifications affects the formation of hydrogen bonds and therefore protein folding. pKa NC Loss Gain Deltamass H AA UV-Spec Pattern – No NH O Av: 0.9848M: […]


Prenylation covers two post-translational modifications in which one or two isoprenoid moieties, either farnesyl or geranylgeranyl moieties, are attached to a conserved cysteine residue via thioether bond at or near the C-terminus. Most prenylated proteins contain a CAAX motif at the C-terminus. The CAAX motif is a sequence of four amino acids, where “C” stands […]


Overview O-Sulfation is a common post-translational modification of tyrosine residues in eukaryotes, but has not been observed in yeast and prokaryotes. Sulfation is limited to secretory and trans-membrane proteins that have passed the trans-Golgi network, where two membrane-bound tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase enzymes catalyze the transfer of sulfate from adenosine 3’-phosphate5’-phosphosulfate to the tyrosine phenol. pKa NC […]


Overview Nitration is a post-translational modification of mostly tyrosine residues that is caused by one-electron oxidation. First, a tyrosine radical is formed by one-electron oxidation followed by a reaction with nitrogen dioxide resulting in 3-nitrotyrosine. pKa NC Loss Gain Deltamass H AA UV-Spec Pattern Acidic7.25 No H NO2 Av: 44.9976M: 44.9851 – Y Yes* – […]


Amidation is one of the most common post-translational modification in which the C-terminal carboxyl group is replaced by an amide group​1–5​. Amidation plays an important role in peptidesand peptide hormones. More than half of all mammalian peptide hormones and more than 80 % of all insect hormones have amidated C-termini​1​. The mechanism of amidation is […]

A mass spectrometry imaging software: Quantinetix™

ImaBiotech, founded in 2009 by a team of experts, offers new molecular imaging (called MALDI imaging) services and products to life science industries. This new technology is capable of visualizing and quantifying biological compounds that play role in many pathologies like Cancer, Alzheimer or Parkinson diseases. It is also an interesting tool to follow new […]

Prediction of potential modification sites in proteins

Some sequence motifs in proteins tend to be modified. Thus, for example an N-terminal glutamine or glutamic acid residue can spontaneously lead to a cyclization. This reaction results in an N-terminal pyroglutamic acid with elimination of ammonia or water, respectively. Aspartyl and asparaginyl deamidation, isomerization, and racemization reactions can spontaneously occur, if the subsequent amino acid […]